In the English —speaking world conditions were also attached to the franchise. Great Britain from whom Trinidad and Tobago inherited its system started the franchise in All registrations during the 19 th century concerned men, while women had to wait until the pre-condition being that they should be 30 years and over based on residence, the occupation of land and or business premises, or the qualifications of their husbands in order to vote at local government elections.
This is made possible by the Constitution of India, that encodes the principle of universal adult franchise. This principle was denied to Indians during British rule, chiefly by the Government of India Acts of andtwo critical pieces of British legislation that governed colonial India. Under these Acts, only those who satisfied certain criteria that included income, property and education could vote for members of the provincial and central legislatures.
Image courtesy SBS. We did enjoy full adult voting rights in our island for 18 years after the far reaching Donoughmore reforms of reaching further than many of our leaders, Sinhalese Tamil and Muslim asked for or even wanted. But two Acts ofamong the earliest post-independence legislation, took away citizenship and voting rights of about a tenth of the population classified as Indian Tamil.
Suffragein representative government, the right to vote in electing public officials and adopting or rejecting proposed legislation. The history of the suffrage, or franchise, is one of gradual extension from limited, privileged groups in society to the entire adult population. Nearly all modern governments have provided for universal adult suffrage. It is regarded as more than a privilege extended by the state to its citizenry, and it is rather thought of as an inalienable right that inheres to every adult citizen by virtue of citizenship.
We think of the right to vote as one of the most basic elements of a democratic citizenship: both essential and universal. In the course of democratic evolution across the world, the right to vote was often withheld by political elites, who saw it as a weapon that could be used to bring about large-scale social reconstruction. For large parts of history, women, racial minorities, and property-less or poor people were routinely denied the vote, on the grounds that they could not be trusted to exercise it responsibly.
In this excerpt from her book, Ornit Shani explains how electoral democracy in India, shaped by the imagination of bureaucrats, came to life through universal adult franchise. F rom November India embarked on the preparation of the first draft electoral roll on the basis of universal adult franchise. A handful of bureaucrats at the Secretariat of the Constituent Assembly initiated the undertaking.
Adult Franchise means all adult citizens of the country should have the right to vote without any discrimination of class, caste, class, religion, or gender. It is based on the basic principle of democracy, which we call equality. It stresses that the right to vote should be equally available to all.
Two score and seven yeas ago a constituent assembly comprising men of great intellect, learning, acumen and insight bestowed the Constitution of India upon an eager and expectant citizenry. This Constitution, the product of scholarly debates unmatched since then, is perhaps the finest document of its kind and in ringing tones articulated the high hopes and aspirations of a nation which promised to emerge as a dignified an accomplished player on the world stage. Four decades later the noble dreams of the founding fathers of the Constitution seem to have been transformed into vain and unattainable dreams. The Republic of India is listed among the 20 poorest nations in the world; half the population is wholly illiterate; Indian society is a seething cauldron of caste and communal turmoil; all over the country the infrastructure is on the point of imminent collapse; government and the bureaucracy is unremittingly corrupt, and the shadow of chronic political instability and anarchy looms large over the Republic.
Universal Adult Franchise means that all the adults, i. On the contrary, in the Selective franchise, not everyone gets the right to vote. Example: Women do not have the right to cast a vote in Saudi Arabia.
The concept of universal franchisealso known as general suffrage or common suffrage of the common manconsists of the right to vote of all adult citizensregardless of wealth, income, gender, social status, raceor ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions. There are variations among countries in terms of specifics of the right to vote; the minimum age is usually between 18 and 25 years see age of majority and "the insane, certain classes of convicted criminals, and those punished for certain electoral offenses" sometimes lack the right to vote. In most countries, universal suffrage the right to vote but not necessarily the right to be a candidate followed about a generation after universal adult franchise. Notable exceptions in Europe were France, where women could not vote untilGreeceand Switzerland